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Full text of "PNS/BFAD 07: Recommended Code of Practice for the Processing and Handling of Thermally Processed Fish Products"

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES 



?i^\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\V 



EDICT OF GOVERNMENT 



In order to promote public education and public safety, equal 
justice for all, a better informed citizenry, the rule of law, 
world trade and world peace, this legal document is hereby 
made available on a noncommercial basis, as it is the right of 
all humans to know and speak the laws that govern them. 



PNS/BFAD 07 (2006) (English) : Recommended Code of 
Practice for the Processing and Handling of 
Thermally Processed Fish Products 




BLANK PAGE 



^*-^^^ 





PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT 



i' 



PHILIPPINE NATIONAL 
STANDARD 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 
ICS 67.020 



Recommended code of practice the processing and handling 
of thermally processed fish products 



11 ^ 



SEP 2 / /uUi 



DEPARTMENT OF 

TRADE a INDUSTRY 

P H I L { P P I H E S 



BUREAU OF PRODUCT STANDARDS 



PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS BFAD 07:2006 



Foreword 

This project is composed of the Technical Working Group (TWG) of different agencies 
and industry groups namely the hidustrial Technology Development Institute (ITDI) of the 
Department of Science and Technology (DOST), Bureau of Food & Drugs (BFAD) of the 
Department of Health (DOH), Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Product Standards 
(BAFFS), Bureau of Product Standards (BPS), Bureau of Export and Trade Promotions 
(BETP) and Food Products Division (FPD) of the Department of Trade and Industry 
(DTI), Philippine Chamber of Food Manufacturers Incorporated (PCFMI) and Integrated 
Food Manufacturers Association of the Philippines (INFOMAPP). 

The Philippine Council for Industry and Energy Research (PCIERD) of the DOST is the 
financing agency while the Philippine Food Processors and Exporters Organization, Inc. 
(PHILIFOODEX) signifies as the collaborating agency and the Department of Food 
Science and Nutrition (FSN) of the College of Home Economics, University of the 
Philippines - Diliman Campus as the implementing agency. 

The TWG's main task is to draft standards and codes of practice for identified ethnic food 
products which will be later adopted as national standards after a series of reviews and 
public consultation in coordination with the Bureau of Food and Drugs. 

In the preparation of this standard, related Codex Alimentarius standards were considered. 



PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Contents Pag<^ 

Foreword i 

1 Scope and purpose 1 

2 Definition of terms 1 

3 Raw materials, ingredients and packaging material requirements 5 

4 Hygiene 7 

5 Preparation and processing of thermally processed fish products 7 

6 Food additives 13 

7 Post-process handling procedures 15 

8 Inspection and labeling 15 

9 Quality assurance '. 15 

10 Storage and transport of finished product 16 

1 1 Laboratory control procedures 16 

12 End product specificafions 17 

Table 

1 General condifions of fi*esh and fi-ozen fish 7 

Annexes 

A Species of fish utilized in the production of thermally processed fish 18 

B Standard parameters and values for drinking water 21 

C Preparation of brine of required strength 22 

D Acidification procedures 23 

E Critical control points in the production of acidified foods 24 

F Operation of steam retort and pressure canner 25 

G FAO/WHO Alimentarius sampling plan for prepackaged foods 

(AQL-6.5) CAC/RM 42-1969) 28 

H Sampling plan 33 

I Explanatory notes on acceptance sampling 35 

J Operating characteristic curves 38 

K Deteraiination of lead by the Atomic absorption spectrophotometric 

method • 39 

L Detemiination of Tin by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric 

Method 41 

M Detemiination of drained weight 44 

N Detennination of net weight and washed drained weight 45 

O Detemiination of presentation 46 



PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BFAD 07:2006 

Recommended code of practice for the processing and handling of thermally 
processed fish products 



1 Scope and purpose 

This Code of Practice is concerned with the receipt of raw materials and ingredients, 
preparation and themial processing of fish products as defined in this Code, in order to 
confomi to the required standards stated in PNS/BFAD 06:2006. The product may be 
prepared from different species offish used for thermal processing. 

This Code is intended to provide guidelines to achieve compliance with the standards for 
themially processed fish products packed in any suitable containers and packing medium. 

2 Definition of terms 

For the purpose of this Code, the following definitions apply: 

2,1 

acid food 

any food that has a natural pH of 4.6 or below 

2,2 

acidified low-acid food 

any food that has been treated so as to attain an equilibrium pH of 4.6 or lower after 

processing 

23 

come-up time 

time, including venfing time, which elapses between the introducfion of heafing medium 

into the enclosed retort and/or the time when the temperature in the retort reaches 

processing temperature 

2.4 

commercial sterility of thermally processed food 

the condition achieved by applicafion of heat, alone or in combination with other 

appropriate treatment, sufficient to render the food free from microorganisms capable of 

growing in the food at ambient condifions at which the food is likely to be held during 

distribution and storage 

2.5 

container 

any form of packaging material, which completely or partially encloses the food 

(including wrappers). A container may enclose the food as a single item or several units or 

types of prepackaged food when such is presented for sale to the consumer 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



2,6 

cutting 

the severing of muscle, bone, and other components of aquatic organisms for the purpose 

of fonning more than one piece from an existing single piece 

2/7 

equilibrium pH 

pH of the blended or homogenized finished food once all components have attained pH 

unifonnity 

2.8 
evisceration 

the process of removing the entrails (internal organs) from the fish 

23 

filleting 

the process of cutting the fish meat lengthwise away from the backbone 

2.10 

food 

any substance, whether processed, semi-processed or raw, which is intended for human 

consumption, and includes drink, chewing gum and any substance which has been used in 

the manufacture, preparation or treatment of "food" but does not include cosmetics or 

tobacco or substances used only as drugs 

2.11 

food additives 

any substance not normally consumed as a food by itself and not noraially used as a 

typical ingredient of the food, whether or not it has nutrifive value, the intendonal 

addition of which to food for a technological (including sensory) puipose in the 

manufacturing, processing, preparation, treatment, packaging, transport or holding of 

such food results or maybe reasonably expected to result (directly or indirectly) in its or 

its by-product becoming a component of (or otherwise affecting the characteristic of) 

such food 

2.12 

food standard 

a regulatory guideline that defines the idenfity of a given food product (i.e. its name and 

the ingi'edients used for its preparation) and specifies the minimum quality factors and, 

when necessary, the required fill of the container. It may also include specific labeling 

requirements other than or in addition to the labeling requirements generally applicable to 

all prepackaged foods 

2.13 

current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) 

a quality assurance system aimed at ensuring that products are consistently manufactured, 

packed or repacked or held to a quality appropriate for the intended use. It is thus 

concerned with both manufacturing and quality control procedures 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



2.14 

headspace 

volume in a container not occupied by the food and the packing medium 

2,15 

heat processed food 

any food processed by heat to an extent, which resuhs in a product that is safe and will 

not spoil under normally expected temperature of non-refrigerated storage and 

transportation 

2J6 

hermetically sealed containers 

containers which are sealed air-tight to protect the contents against the entry of 

microorganisms during and after heat processing 

2.17 

ingredient 

any substance including food additive, used as a component in the manufacture or 

preparation of a food and present in the final product in its original or modified form 

2.18 

label 

any tag, brand, mark, pictorial, or other descriptive matter, written printed, marked, 

embossed or impressed on, or attached to a container of food 

2,19 

labeling 

any written, printed or graphic matter (1) upon any article or any of its container or 

wrappers and/or (2) accompanying the packaged food 

2.20 

lot 

food produced during a period of time and under more or less the same manufacturing 

condition indicated by a specific code 

2.21 

low-acid foods 

any food, other than alcoholic beverages, with a pH value higher than 4.6 and a water 

acfivity (aw) greater than 0.85 

2.22 

packaging 

the process of packing that is part of the production cycle applied to a bulk product to 

obtain the finished product. Any material, including painted material, employed in the 

packaging of a product including any outer packaging used for transportation of 

shipment. Packaging materials are referred to as primary or secondary according to 

whether or not they are intended to be in direct contact with the product 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



2.23 

packing medium 

the medium in which the food is packed for preservation and added flavor 

2.24 

pasteurization 

heating of food at lOO'^C or below at specified time 

2.25 

pH 

intensity or degree of acidity of a food material 

2.26 

potable water 

water fit for human consumption and potability determined by health authorities cited in 

Philippine National Standards for drinking water (PNS ^991: 1993 Agricultural and Other 

Food Products - Bottled Drinking Water Specifications) 

2.27 
processed food 

foods that have been subjected to some degree of processing (e.g. milling, drying, 
freezing, concentration and canning, etc), which partially or completely change the 
physico-chemical and/or sensory characteristics of the raw material 

2.28 

process schedule 

the thennal process chosen by the processor for a given product and container size to 

achieve at least commercial sterility 

229 

refrigeration temperature 

cold temperature of 3-5^C 

230 

retort 

a pressure vessel designed for thermal processing of food packed in hemietically sealed 

containers equipped with an in-glass thennometer and a pressure gauge 

231 

room temperature 

ambient temperature of 28-30''C 

232 
salt 
the coarse or fine sodium chloride of food grade quality 

233 

sterilization temperature 

the temperature maintained throughout the themial process as specified in the scheduled 
process 

4 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



234 

sterilization time 

the time between the moment the sterilization temperature is achieved and the moment 

the cooHng started 

2.35 

thermal process 

the heat treatment to achieve commercial sterility and is quantified in tenns of processing 

time and temperature 

2.36 

vacuum 

a state of pressure reduction below atmospheric 

2.37 

venting 

thorough removal of the air fi*om retorts by steam prior to scheduled process 

238 

water activity (Sw) 

the ratio of water vapor pressure of the product to the water vapor pressure of pure water 

at the same temperature. It means water available for the growth of microorganisms 

3 Raw materials, ingredients and packaging material requirements 

3.1 Raw materials and ingredients 

Raw materials for processing shall not contain parasites, microorganisms, toxins, and 
decomposed or extraneous substances. 

3.L1 Fish 

Fish to be used for processing shall be prepared from sound fish of species listed in, but 
not limited to, Annex A, and is of a quality fit to be sold fresh for human consumption. 

3.L2 Water 

Only clean, potable water shall be used for the preparation of packing medium and for all 
the pretreatment and processing steps. The standard for potable water is presented in 
Annex B, 

Non-potable water may be used only for operations not in direct contact with the food 
materials provided that this does not pose a hazard to health as determined and approved 
by the official agency having the jurisdiction over it. 

3.13 Packing medium 

The packing medium may be comprised of the following: vegetable oil, water, brine 
solution, marinade, tomato sauce, different sauces or any formulations of these. 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 

Ingredients to be used for the packing medium shall be of food gi'ade quality and free 
from contaminants. 

3.1.4 Other ingredients 

All other ingredients to be used shall be of food grade quality and conform to all 
applicable food standards. 

3.1.5 Food additives. 

All additives including acidulants, humectants, coloring and flavoring agents shall 
confomi to the standards required by the Bureau of Food and Drugs (BFAD). They shall 
be properly packaged and stored. 

3.2 Packaging materials 

The packaging materials shall be appropriate for the product to be packed and for the 
expected conditions of storage. These shall provide the products appropriate protection 
from contamination and shall be sufficiently durable to withstand the mechanical, 
chemical and the thermal stresses encountered during heat processing and nornial 
distribution. All packaging materials shall be stored in clean and sanitary manner. 

Just before filling, rigid containers shall be cleaned to prevent incorporation of foreign 
matter into the finished product. Closures, semi-rigid containers, prefonned flexible 
pouches and flexible pouch roll stock contained in original wrappings may be cleaned 
before use, subject to the conditions of handling by the processors or suppliers. 

302.1 Glass jars and metal closures (caps or lids) 

Only heat resistant glass jars and metal closures shall be used. The glass jars shall be 
properly inspected for cracks, chips and other defects. These shall be washed with clean 
water to eliminate dirt and foreign matter. Metal closures shall be provided with heat 
resistant liners and shall be free from scratches, dents and other defects. It must also be 
provided with a self-sealing compound that will affect a hermetic seal after thenual 
processing. 

Glass jars may be reused provided they are sound, and properly washed and sanitized. All 
metal closures shall never be re-used. Shrinkable plastic cap seals, when used to prevent 
tampering, shall fit the size of the closures and glass jars to protect bottleneck 
contamination and other physical damage. 

3.2.2 Metal containers 

Two- or three-piece metal cans shall be inspected for integrity of side seam and double 
seams, general cleanliness and presence of defects. If necessary, suitable inside linings 
may be used as required by the product. Closure of these containers shall be effectively 
carried out to provide the hemietic seal after thermal processing. 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



3.2.3 Semi-rigid and flexible containers 

Preformed containers may be used provided they are suitable for the product, and free 
from pinholes, scratches, blisters and other defects. The pouch seal area must be free from 
contamination and wrinkles and shall provide a hermetic seal upon closure. 

4 Hygiene 

It is recommended that the product covered by the provisions of this code of practice be 
prepared and handled in accordance with the appropriate sections of the Recommended 
International Code of Practice - General Principles of Food Hygiene (CAC/RCP 1 - 
1969, Rev. 4 (2003)) and/or the A.O. No. 153 s. 2004 - Guidelines, Current Good 
Manufacturing Practices in Manufacturing, Packing, Repacking or Holding Food, 
covering the plant facilities and operations requirement including the construction and 
layout of processing plant, hygienic facilities, equipment, utensils and working surfaces. 

5 Preparation and processing of thermally processed fish products 

The preparation offish and packing mediums are described separately from the receipt of 
raw materials until the pre-filling operations. 

5.1 Preparation of raw materials for thermal processing 
5.1.1 Fish 

5.1.1.1 Receipt of raw materials 

Fish shall only be accepted if they are sound and suitable for processing. Those that show 
signs of deterioration shall not be used. 

5.1.1.2 Inspection and sorting 

Prior to processing, the fish shall be inspected and sorted according to size and quality 
before processing. The general condition of the fish may be specified in different ways 
depending upon whether the fish is fresh or frozen (Table 1) or pre-processed. 

Table 1 - General conditions of fresh and frozen fish 



Fresh fish Frozen fish 



shining, iridescent with bright color • general good appearance 

slightly protmding eyes • eyes flat or slightly sunken 

little orno blood staining at the gills • blocks well glazed to minimize the 

development of rancidity 
fresh sea-weedy odor or slight oily • odor slightly oily or neutral with no 
Q^oi- off-odors particularly at the gills 

containing no feed • containing no feed 

free from disease and with no • no evidence of disease or parasitic 
obvious infestation with parasites infestation 

minimum of damage • very little skinning or damage, fairly 

firm flesh 
no burst bellies • no burst bellies 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 

Where fresh fish is being used by the manufacturer, the delay between catching and 
landing must be as short as possible, ideally less than 12 hours. Where this period is hkely 
to be exceeded there must be some form of refrigeration to hold the product at O'^C, such 
as boxing and icing, or use of refrigerated seawater, to minimize quality deterioration. 
Once the fish has been accepted in the factory the maintenance of a fish temperature of 
0°C is essential to prevent accelerated spoilage. Ideally, storage shall be in clean plastic 
boxes where the fish is mixed with ice and the boxes held in an insulated chilled room 
operating at between l^'C and 2'^C. 

5.1.13 Washing and/or cleaning 

The fish shall be washed immediately after receipt and stored under conditions that will 
protect them from contamination. 

5.LL4 Scaling and skinning 

Scaling is the process of removing the scales from the exterior of a fish. For large species 
of fish, the scale is often removed prior to processing. Manual scaling can be done by 
rubbing a rough surface on the exterior of a fish hard enough to remove the scales. For 
large scale production, a machine is often utilized for this process. Some types offish also 
require skinning where the skin fi-om a whole fish or a part of a fish is removed. 

5.LL5 Salting 

Salting is the process of mixing fish with the appropriate amount of food grade salt, 
sugar, spices and all optional ingredients and/or of adding the appropriate amount of salt 
to obtain the appropriate concentration. Salting in brine is done in water-tight containers. 
The fish must be uniformly salted. The fish may be washed after the defined salting 
period. 

5.1. L6 Cutting, slicing/filleting and separation of edible portion 

These steps must be done as rapidly as possible to prevent contamination. Care must be 
practiced during evisceration to prevent viscera of the fish and other unnecessary portions 
from getting in contact with the edible portions. 

After removing the entrails, the body cavity shall be washed with potable water to remove 
any blood, slime or similar materials. 

5.1.1.7 Drying, smoking, frying and other treatments 

Some fish and packing medium require pre-cooking by methods such as boiling. This is 
done by boiling in water to soften the raw material in order to attain the required texture. 
If the fish is to be soaked in the packing medium, this shall be done in such a manner that 
the fish is completely immersed to the soaking medium for the required soaking period. 
Should the addition of a chemical preservative become necessary, the amount added shall 
be based on allowable limits. 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



5.1.1.8 Cooking in packing medium 

The prepared fish may be cooked or boiled in the packing medium with the required 
strength, the amount of which shall be sufficient to cover the fish during boiling. The fish 
shall be occasionally mixed during boiling to allow even cooking. The fish must be 
cooked until the required packing medium penetration is achieved. Cooked fish shall not 
be allowed to remain at room temperature longer than 8 hours, or they shall be 
reftigerated to minimize microbial activity. 

5.1.2 Other ingredients 

All other ingredients shall be inspected and sorted to ensure conformity to food standards. 
Ingredients of vegetable origin shall be selected on the basis of optimum quality and shall 
not contain residual chemicals that may pose a hazard to health. The salt shall be coarse 
or fine and of food grade quality, and meets the purity requirements as specified m 
Section 4.1 of the Implementing Rules and Regulafions of the ASIN Law, Republic Act 
(RA) 8172, an Act Promoting Salt lodization Nationwide. 

5.2 Preparation of cooking and packing medium 

Packing medium shall be prepared by dissolving and/or incorporating the specified 
ingredients of the chosen type of medium in the main base/carrier (i.e., water, brme, 
vegetable oil, etc.). It shall be heated to dissolve all the crystal ingredients and filtered to 
remove any foreign matters present. Packing medium with a required concentration must 
be checked with a refractometer and adjustments made either with addition of one or 
more of the ingredients. 

pH of packing medium shall be adjusted, if necessary to conform to specific requirements 
for acidified products. Care shall be taken that the suitable quality and correct amount of 
acidifying agents (e.g., citric acid, ftimaric acid) is added and uniforaily mixed to each 
batch of packing medium prepared. A pH meter shall be used to determine the pH of the 
packing medium. 

Types of packing medium 

The packing medium prepared from one or more ingredients or in combination of these 
shall be classified accordingly and described as follows: 

5.2.1 Water 

Products packed in water with less than 4% sah and/or for lower grain (less than 10) 
vinegar-water mixture. 

5.2.2 Brine 

Products packed in a salt-water solution of 4% or more. 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



5*23 Vegetable oil 

Products packed in vegetable oil. Vegetable oil to be used shall be clear, refined, 
deodorized and edible in confomaity with all applicable standards. 

Other oils - All other food grade oils applicable for use as packing medium for fish and 
are compliant with all applicable food standards. 

5.2.4 Tomato sauce/paste 

It is the concentrated product prepared from the liquid extracted from mature, sound, 
whole tomatoes; the sound residue fi*om preparing such tomatoes for canning; the residue 
fi'om partial extraction of juice; reconstituted tomato paste (concentrated tomato juice 
containing not less than 24% by weight of natural tomato soluble solids); or any 
combination of these ingredients to which is added salt and spices. One or more nutritive 
sweetening ingredients, vinegar or vinegars, onion, garlic, or other vegetable flavoring 
ingredients may be added. 

5.2.5 Other sauces 

A thickened liquid made from acceptable food grade ingredients giving a characterizing 
flavor and odor to the product. 

5.2.6 Marinades 

A thin liquid made from acceptable food grade ingredients, usually containing a 
sweetener, an acid solution or an alcoholic solution, with or without spices, herbs, 
seasonings, vegetables and other condiments. 

5.3 Acidification process 

To produce products with a pH of 4.6 or less, acidification must be properly carried out. It 
is important that perishable ingredients must not be contaminated before acidification and 
until equilibrium pH of 4.6 or less is reached. 

5.4 Filling of containers 

The filling of containers, either mechanically or manually, shall be controlled so as to 
meet the filling and headspace requirements specified in the process schedule. It is 
important to standardize filling, not only for economic reasons, but because the heat 
penetration and the container integrity may be affected by excessive fill variafion. 
Properly filled containers shall result in cut-out net weight equivalent to at least 90% of 
the water capacity of the container. Overfilling can lead to contamination of seals which 
can affect container integrity. 

The food material may be packed hot or cold into containers. Glass containers for hot 
filling may be dipped in hot water before filling to prevent thennal shock or breakage. 
During filling, contaminafion of sealing areas with product must be avoided. They must 
be kept clean and dry to obtain a safisfactory closure. 



10 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



After filling, the filled containers may be carefially tapped at the bottom to settle the 
contents and obtain a fiill pack. Subsequently, the packing medium is added to cover the 
product until the correct headspace is achieved. Hot packing medium shall be added to 
shorten exhausting period and help displaced trapped air. 

5.5 Exhausting of filled contaiHers 

Exhausting of filled containers shall be controlled to create the necessary vacuum upon 
cooling. It also prevents and minimizes corrosion of closures and removes air that would 
cause loss of color, flavor and vitamins. This may be done by heat exhausting, hot filling, 
steam injecfion or mechanical/vacuum exhausting. 

During heat exhausting, the temperature of the contents must reach at least 65°C (150 °F). 
This would be sufficient to produce vacuum readings of 8 psi - 12 psi (equivalent to 5.5 in. 
Hg - 13.6 in. Hg or 18.6 kPa - 46.2 kPa) in the finished product. 

5.6 Closing or sealing of containers 

Seams and other closures shall be sealed airtight to meet the requirements of the 
processors. 

Self-sealing metal caps or lids shall be tightened and secured to each filled container 
before themial processing. No fiirther tightening shall be done during and after processing 
to avoid breaking the seal that could result to leakage. 

To prevent leakage and contamination, the sealing surface must be free of defects and 
damage. After closing, the caps shall be essentially level, not cocked or tilted, and seated 
well down the finish. This will prevent damage caused by bumping of adjacent containers 
as they move along conveyors. 

The pouch seal area must be fi-ee of food material and wrinkles. Sealing temperature, 
pressure and dwell time should confonn to the packaging material specifications. 

5.7 Coding of sealed containers 

Coding of sealed container must be indelible with details of production date and time, 
batch code, product code, the product line in which product is packed, the manufacturing 
plant and other infonnation necessary for product traceability. Where the container does 
not permit the code to be embossed or inked, the label shall be legibly perforated or 
otherwise marked, and securely affixed to the product container. 

5.8 Washing of sealed containers 

Where necessary, filled and sealed containers shall be thoroughly washed before 
sterilization to remove grease, dirt and product from the outside of the container. 

5.9 Thermal processing of sealed containers 

Thennal processing shall start as soon as possible after closing or sealing the containers to 
prevent unnecessary decrease in product temperature. 

11 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Processing schedules for specific formulations of theraially processed fish shall be 
established only by a competent personnel having expert knowledge of thermal 
processing requirements and having adequate facilities for making such detenninations. 

5.9.1 Thermal processing operations 

Process schedules and retort venting procedures for each product and container size being 
packed shall be written on a board conspicuously placed near the processing equipment. 
Such infoHTiation must be readily available to the retort or processing system operator and 
any duly authorized inspector of the BFAD. 

To segregate processed from unprocessed food products all retort baskets, trucks, car or 
crates containing unprocessed /unretorted food product shall be conspicuously marked 
with heat sensitive indicators or other effective identifying markers. 
An accurate wall clock must be posted where it is clearly visible from the retort 
operator's station. 

5.9.2 Low-acid foods 

Thermally processed fish with pH higher than 4.6 and aw above 0.85 shall be sterilized at 
1 15,6° - 121°C (240° - 250°F), which is equivalent to pressure of 10 psi -15 psi (50.3 in. 
Hg - 60.4 in Hg or 170 kPa - 205 kPa) at a heat duration specified in the process schedule. 
The process must be adequate to destroy the spores of Clostridium botulinum, a heat 
resistant food-poisoning bacterium that survives in improperly processed low-acid foods. 
Appropriate sterilization equipment for low-acid foods packed in glass jars, cans and 
pouches must be used. 

5.9.3 Products with reduced water activity (a,v) 

Themially processed fish with aw of 0.85 and lower shall be processed based on the 
combined effect of low aw and pasteurizafion temperature at 100°C (212°F) to prevent the 
growth of Clostridium botulinum. Water acfivity is controlled by the addition of 
humectants that bind or reduce free moisture in foods. Examples of these humectants are 
sugar, salt, glycerol, propylene glycol, sorbitol, invert sugar and high finctose syrup. 

5.9.4 Acid/acidified foods 

Acid and acidified foods with equilibrium pH of 4.6 and below, regardless of aw, shall 
receive a heat treatment much less than that necessary for low-acid foods. The low pH of 
these products is generally adequate to prevent the growth of Clostridium botulimim and 
other spore- fomiing bacteria. 

When properly acidified and the required pH maintained, these products can attain 
commercial sterility through pasteurizafion at lOO'^C (212°F), or lower. This is sufficient 
to destroy mold, yeasts and vegetative cells of bacteria, and to inacdvate enzymes. Heat 
processing systems include steam retorts at atmospheric pressure, water bath processors 
and steamers capable of processing at 100°C (212°F) or lower, provided that the slowest 
heating point of the product reaches pasteurization temperature. 



12 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



5.10 Cooling of processed products 

Cooling of finished products is dependent on the theraial processing systems used. Low- 
acid products processed in water retorts with air overpressure are cooled in the same 
heating equipment. Precaution should be taken not to reduce pressure abruptly in cooling 
of products particularly in glass jars and pouches. Air-cooling is recommended for 
product in glass jars. 

To avoid themiophilic spoilage and/or sensory characteristics deterioration of the product, 
the containers shall be cooled as rapidly as possible to a temperature of 40^C - 50°C 
(104^F - 122^F). This temperature is necessary to dry the container surface. 

Cooling water must be of low microbial content, which can be achieved by adequate 
chlorination. After its use, the level of residual free chlorine shall be 0.5 ppm - 2.0 ppm. 
Chlorine levels in excess of 2.0 ppm may accelerate corrosion of certain metallic 
containers. Residual chlorine levels in cooling water must be monitored and recorded. 

5.11 Washing 

The containers of finished products may be washed in warm water to remove adhering 
product and must be immediately dried. Pouches may be dried promptly using an 
appropriate air dryer. 

5.12 Post-process container handling 

Mechanical and thennal shocks leading to leaker infection and breakage of glass 
containers due to container abuse must be avoided. These occur by knocking against each 
other during conveying, in-place cooling, packaging and labeling operations, among 
others. 

Before unloading crates, water must be drained from container surfaces by tilting the 
crates as far as possible and allowing sufficient fime for the water to drain. Processed 
containers shall not be manually handled while wet. 

Pouches must be handled singly rather than in bunches, and care must be exercised so as 
to prevent damage by roughened contact surfaces. 

6 Food additives 

6.1 Food additives when used shall be in accordance with the regulations of the 
Bureau of Food and Drugs (BFAD), and may include the following: 



13 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Additive 


Maximum allowable level 


Acidity Regulators 




Acetic acid 






Lactic acid (L-, D- and DL-) 

Citric acid 




GMP* 


For bottled tuna and bonito only 




Disodium diphosphate 


1 Omg/kg expressed as P2O5 (includes 
natural phosphate) 


Modified Starches 




Acid treated starches (including white and yellow 




dextrins) 

Alkaline treated starches 






Oxidized starches 






Monostarch phosphate 
Distarch phosphate, esterified 
Acetylated distarch phosphate 
Phosphated distarch phosphate 
Starch acetate 




GMP 


Acetylated distarch adipate 
Hydroxypropyl starch 
Hydroxypropyl starch phosphate 







Additive 


Maximum allowable level 


Thickening or Gelling Agents (for use in packing 
media only) 




Alginic acid 

Sodium alginate 

Potassium alginate 

Calcium alginate 

Agar 

Carrageenan and its Na, K, and NH4 salts (including 

furcelleran) 

Processed Eucheuma Seaweed 

Carob bean gum 

Guar gum 

Tragacanth gum 

Xanthan gum 

Pectins 

Sodium carboxymethylcellulose 




GMP 


Natural Flavors 




Spice oils 

Spice extracts 

Smoke flavors (Natural smoke solutions and 

extracts) 




GMP 


*GMP - The food additive must be used according to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), and its use 
self-limiting in food for technological, sensorial or other reasons thus need not be subjected to legal 
maximum limits. 



14 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 

6.2 Others - All others not included in the above list shall be allowed as carry-over, 
provided they are approved by the BFAD's Regulation on Food Additives and shall be in 
accordance to the "Principle Relating to the Carry-Over of Food Additives into Foods" of 
the Codex. 

7 Post-process handling procedures 

To control post-process leakage contamination or leaker infection in glass jars and cans, 
processed containers must be dried as soon as possible after processing so that exposure 
to post-wet retorting, conveying and handling equipment is minimized. 

8 Inspection and labeling 

8.1 Inspection of finished products 

All processed products shall be inspected before labeling and casing. Defective products 
shall be withdrawn or rejected. The company must have an approved policy and 
procedures based on the A.O. No. 153 s. 2004 - Guidelines, Current Good Manufacturing 
Practices in Manufacturing, Packing, Repacking or Holding Food. 

8.2 Labeling 

Labeling shall be done after the prescribed incubation period when the product has passed 
quality evaluation. All containers shall be properly labeled. The label shall confonn to the 
rules and regulations of BFAD. 

83 Tamper-evident seals 

Tamper-evident seals are highly recommended. 

9 Quality Assurance 
9.1 Record keeping 

Pemianent and legible dated records of time, temperature, code mark and other pertinent 
details shall be kept concerning each load. Such records are essential as a check on 
processing operations. 

Record of time steam on, venting time and temperature, time sterilization temperature 
reached and time steam off shall be kept concerning each load. 

Written records of all container closure examinations shall specify the code lot, the date 
and time of container closure inspections, the measurements obtained and all the 
corrective actions taken. 

Records shall be maintained identifying initial distribution of the finished product to 
facilitate, if necessary, the segregation of specific food lots that may have been 
contaminated or otherwise unfit for intended use. 



15 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



9.2 Deviations in processing 

Whenever in-process monitoring records disclose that a product has received a themial or 
sterilization treatment less than that stipulated in the scheduled process, the processor 
shall: 

9.2.1 Identify, isolate and then reprocess that portion of the production involved. 
Complete reprocessing records shall be retained; or 

9.2.2 Set aside that portion of the product involved for further evaluation as to any 
potential public health significance. Such evaluation shall be made by competent 
processing authority and shall be in accordance with recognized procedures. A record 
shall be made of the evaluations made and the results. After the determination that no 
significant potential for health hazards exists, that portion of the product involved may be 
distributed. Otherwise, that portion of the product shall be destroyed. 

All process deviations involving failure to satisfy the minimum requirements of the 
process schedule shall be recorded detailing those deviations and the actions taken. 

9.3 Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) 

HACCP plan must be developed for each thermally processed fish product. Prior to the 
development of HACCP plan, establishments must have developed, documented and 
implemented prerequisite programs based on BFAD's Current Good Manufacturing 
Practices (cGMP) and Hygiene Control. 

Guidelines for the Application of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) 
System (CAC/GL 18-1993 or the FDA-CFSAN Seafood HACCP: www.cfsan.fda.gov/ 
-comm/haccpsea.html) presents the recommended sequence and document formats for 
the application of the HACCP systems. 

10 Storage and transport of finished product 

Storage and transport conditions of the finished product shall be such that the integrity of 
the product container, and the safety and quality of the product are not adversely affected. 

Cases and cartons shall be thoroughly dry. They must be of proper size so that the 
containers fit snugly and are not subject to damage from movement within the case. They 
shall be strong enough to withstand nornial transport. 

Warm products must not be stored in the warehouse to avoid growth of thennophilic 
organisms. Extreme temperature fluctuations during storage and transport of the product 
must be avoided to prevent product deterioration. 

11 Laboratory control procedures 

Each food processing establishment shall have access to laboratory control of both the 
processes used and the finished products. All food ingredients and food products declared 
unfit for human consumption by the laboratory shall be rejected. 

16 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 

Representative samples for each lot or batch shall be taken to assess the safety and quality 
of the product. 

Microbiological laboratory must be separated from the processing area. No pathogens 
shall be handled within the premises of manufacturing plant. 

Laboratory procedures for quality control of the processes and the product shall follow 
recognized or standard methods for easy interpretation of results. 

12 End product specifications 

Appropriate methods shall be used for sampling analysis and detemiinations to meet the 
following specifications: 

12.1 To the extent possible in good manufacturing practice, the products must be free 
from any objectionable characteristics. 

12.2 The product shall not contain any pathogenic organisms or any toxic substances 
originating from microorganisms, 

12.3 The product must be free from chemical pollutants in amounts which may 
represent hazard to health. 

12.4 The product shall comply with the requirements set forth by the Bureau of Food 
and Drugs and the Codex Alimentarius Commission on Pesticide Residues and Food 

Additives. 

12.5 Products with an equilibrium pH above 4.5 shall have received a processing 
treatment sufficient to destroy all spores of Clostridium botulinum, unless growth of 
surviving spores would be permanently prevented by product characteristics other than 
pH. 



17 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Annex A 



Species of fish utilized in the production of thermally processed fish* 



w..™> ." 


Scientific name 


English name 


Common local name 


A, 


Marine species 






Ssirdines and sardine-like fishes (Family clupidae) 


L 


Amblygaster leiogaster 


Smooth belly sardinella 


Tamban, tamban-tuloy 


2. 


Amblygaster Isirm 


Spotted sardinella 


Tamban, tunsoy 


3. 


Anodontostoma 


Chacunda gizzard shad 


Kabasi 


4. 


chacunda 
Dussumieria acuta 


Rainbow sardines 


Tulis 


5. 


Dussmieria ellipsoides 


Slender rainbow herring 


Tamban 


6, 


Escualosa thoracata 


White sardines 


Bolinaw 


7. 


Herklotsichthys 


Black saddle herring 


Manamsi (Palawan) 


8, 


dispilonotus 
Herklotsichthys 


Spot back herring 


Dilat 


9, 


punctatus 
Pellona ditchela 


Indian pellona 


Ibis 


10. 


Sardinella albella 


White sardinella 


Tunsoy, tabagak 


11. 


Sardinella aurita 


Round sardinella 


Lapad 


12. 


Sardinella brachysoma 


Deep-body sardinella 


Lapad 


13. 


Sardinella fimbriata 


Fringe scale sardinella 


Tunsoy, silinyasi, tabagak 


14. 


Sardinella gibbosa 


Gold stripe sardines 


Tunsoy, silinyasi, tamban 


15. 


Sardinella jussieu 


Mauritian sardinella 


Tamban 


16. 


Sardinella longiceps 


Indian oil sardines 


Tamban, turay (P) 


17. 


Sardinella melanura 


Black tip sardines 


Tamban, tunsoy 


18. 


Sardinella tawilis 


Fresh water sardinella 


Tawilis 


19. 

20. 


Spratelloides 
delicatudus 
Spratelloides gracilis 


Delicate round herring 
Silver striped round herring 


Dills bahura 
Mangsi, libod 



^ Other species offish not listed above may also be used provided that it conforms to standards stated herein. 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Scientific name 



English name 



Common local name 



Tuna and mackerel (Family Scombridae) 



1. Aiixis rochei 

2. Auxis thazard 

3. Cybiosarda elegans 

4. Euthynnus affinis 

5. Euthynnus yaito 

6. Grammatocynus 
bicariantus 

7. Grammatocynus 
bulineatus 

8. Gymnosarda unicolor 

9. Katsuwonus pelamis 

10. Rastrelliger brachysoma 

11. Rastrelliger faugni 

12. Rastrelliger kanagurta 

13. Scomber australasicus 

1 4. Scomberomorus 
commerson 

15. Scomberomorus guttatus 

16. Scomber japonicus 

1 7. Scomberomorus munroi 

18. Sarda orientalis 

19. Sarda sarda 

20. Scomberomorus 
semifaciatus 

21. Thimnus albacares 

22. Thunnus obesus 

23. Thunnus tonggol 



Bullet tuna 
Frigate tuna 
Leaping bonito 
Kawa-kawa 
Eastern little tuna 
Shark mackerel 

Double lined mackerel 

Dogtooth tuna 
Skipjack tuna 
Short mackerel 
Island mackerel 
Indian mackerel 

Blue mackerel 
Indo-pacific king mackerel 

Narrow-barred Spanish 

mackerel 

Chub mackerel 

Australian spotted mackerel 

Striped bonito 

Atlantic bonito 

Broad barred king mackerel 

Yellow fin tuna 
Big-eye tuna 
Long-tail tuna 



Tulingan 

Tulingan 

Sanbagon (Surigao sur) 

Katchorita 

Bonito/Katchorita 

Lamhu-an 

Lamhu-an 

Lamhu-an 

Gulyasan 

Hasa-hasa 

Alumahan, hasa-hasa 

Hasa-hasa, alumahan, 

burao 

Alumahan, saramulyete 

Bangkulis 

Tanigue 

Alumahan, saramulyete 

Bariles 

Tambacol 

Tambacol 

Tanigue 

Tambacol, bariles 
Bagok (p) 
Bariles 



Other fishes 



1. Acanthurus bleekeri 

2. Anguillajaponica 

3. Arius manillensis 

4. Caesio caerulaurea 

5. Caranx sexfasciatus 

6. Decapterus macarellus 

7. Decapterus macrosoma 



Ringtail Surgeon fish 
Japanese eel 
Manila sea catfish 
Blue and gold fusiliier 
Big-eye trevally 
Mackerel scad 



Labahita 

Igat 

Kanduli 

Dalagang bukid 

Talakitok 

Galunggong 



Round scad, short finned scad Galunggong 



*Other species offish not listed above may also be used provided that it confonns to standards stated herein. 



19 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 





Scientific name 


English name 


Common local name 


8. 


Elegatis bipinulata 


Rainbow runner 


Salmon 


9. 


Encrasicholina 
oligobranchus 


Philippine anchovy 


Dilis 


10, 


Engraulis japonicus 


Japanese anchovy 


Dilis 


11. 


Epinephelus corallicola 


Spotted grouper 


Lapu-lapu 


12. 


Leingathus equulus 


Common pony fish 


sapsap 


13. 


Makaira mazara 


Indo-pacific blue marlin 


Malasugi (P) 


14. 


Mugil cephalus 


Flathead grey mullet 


Banak 


15. 


Mugil melinopterus 


Black-fmned mullet 


Kapak 


16. 


Nemipterus balinensis 


Balinese threadfm bream 


Bisugo 


17. 


Nemipterus taeniopterus 


Threadfm bream 


Bisugo 


18. 


Polynemus microstoma 


Small mouthed threadfm 


Mamaleng bato 


19. 


Saurida tumbil 


Greater lizardfish 


Kalaso 


20. 


Selar crumenopthalmus 


Big-eyed scad 


Matangbaka 


21. 


Selaroides leptolepsis 


Yellow stripe scad 


Salay-salay, salay-salay 
gin to 


22. 


Siganus canaliculatus 


White spotted spine foot 


Samaral, danggit 


23. 


Siganus coralillinus 


Rabbit fish 


Samaral, danggit 


24. 


Sillago sihama 


Silver sillagao 


Asohos 


25. 


Sphyraena barracuda 


Great barracuda 


Baracuda 


26. 


Sphyraena obstiisata 


Obtuse/stripped barracuda 


Torsillo 


27. 


Stolephorus comersonii 


Commerson's anchovy 


Dilis, bolinao 


28. 


Stolephorus indicus 


Indian anchovy 


Tuakang 


29. 


Trichiurus haumela 


Hair tail 


Balila/Espada 


B. 


Fresh water species 






1. 


Chanos chanos 


Milkfish 


Bangos 


2. 


Clarias batrachus 


Catfish 


Hito 


3. 


Opicephalus striatus 


Murrel/mud fish 


Dalag/Bulig 


4, 


Osphronemus goramy 


Gourami 


Gourami 


5. 


Tilapia mossambica 

ler species offish not listed above it 
nee: 


Tilapia 


Tilapia 


.efere 


my also be used provided that it confomis to standards stated herein. 



1. Avery, A.C. 1950. Fish Processing Handbook of the Philippines. US Government Printing Office: 
Washington, D.C. 

2. Ganaden, S.R and F. Lavapie. 1999. Common and Local Names of Marine Fishes of the Philippines. 

Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Philippines. 386 p. 

3. Gonzalez, B. 2000. Palawan Foodfishes. Palawan Sustainable Development Communications. 82 p. 



20 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Annex B 

Standard parameters and values for drinking water^ 

Table B.l - Standard values for bacteriological quality 



Source and mode of supply 



a. All drinking water supplies 
under all circumstances (Level 
I, II, III bottled water and 
emergency water supplies) 

b. Treated water entering the 
distribution system 

c. Treated water in the distribution 
system 



Bacteria 



E.coH or thermotolerant (fecal) 
coliform bacteria 



E.coli or thermotolerant (fecal) 
coliform bacteria 

E.coli or thermotolerant (fecal) 
coliform bacteria 

Total coliforms 



Standard value 
(no./lOOmL) 







Must not be detectable in 
any lOOmL sample. In any 
case of large quantities 
where sufficient samples 
are examined, it must not 
be present in 95% of 
samples taken throughout 
any 12-month period. 



Table B.2 - Standard values for physical and chemical quality: aesthetic quality 



Constituent maximum or characteristics 



Taste 

Odor 

Color 

Turbidity 

Aluminum 

Chloride 

Copper 

Hardness 

Hydrogen sulfide 

Iron 

Manganese 

pH 

Sodium 

Sulfate 

Total dissolved solids 

Zinc 



Level (mgL) 



Unobjectionable 

Unobjectionable 

5TCU 

5NTU 

0.2 

250 

I 

300 (as CaC03) 

0.05 

1 

0.5 

6.5-8.5 

200 

250 

500 

5 



'^ Sec. 2 Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water. Department of Health, Manila. 



21 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 

Annex C 
Preparation of brine of required strength 

The amount of salt to be dissolved in water to obtain required brine strength: brine 
strength measured at le^'C (6rF) 



Specific 
gravity 


% Salt by 
weight 


Baume' Degrees 
U.S. Standard 


Salinometer 

°S 


Salt (kg) to be dissolved in 
100 L water 


1.007 


1 


1.0 


3.8 


1.0 


1.014 


2 


2.0 


7.6 


2.0 


1.022 


3 


3.1 


11.4 


3.1 


1.029 


4 


4.1 


15.2, 


4.3 


1.037 


5 


5.2 


19.0 


5.3 


1.044 


6 


6.1 


22.7 


6.4 


1.051 


7 


7.0 


26.5 


7.5 


1.058 


8 


7.9 


30.3 


8.7 


1.066 


9 


8.9 


34.1 


9.9 


1.073 


10 


9.8 


37.9 


11.1 


1.081 


11 


10.9 


41.7 


12.4 


1.089 


12 


11.9 


45.5 


13.6 


1.096 


— — — 

13 


12.7 


49,3 


14.9 


1.104 


14 


13.7 


53.1 


16.3 


1.112 


15 


14.6 


56.8 


17.6 


1.119 


16 


15.4 


60.6 


19.0 


1.127 


17 


16.3 


64.6 


20.5 


1.135 


18 


17.2 


72.0 


22.0 


1.143 


19 


18.1 


75.8 


23.5 


1.151 


20 


19.0 


79.6 


25.0 


1.159 


21 


19.9 


83.4 


26.6 


1.168 


22 


20.9 


87.2 


28.2 


1.176 


23 


21.7 


91.0 


29.9 


1.184 


24 


22.5 


94.8 


31.6 


1.192 


25 


23.4 


98.5 


33.3 


1.201 


26 


24.3 


100.0 


35.1 


1.204 


26.4 


24.6 


- 


35.9 



Reference; Recommended International Code of Practice for Salted Fish. 1979 (CAC/RCP 26-1979). 



22 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Annex D 
Acidification procedures 

To produce products which have a pH of 4.6 or less, acidification must be properly 
carried out. Here are some methods to obtain properly acidified foods: 

D,l Blanch the food ingredients in an acidified aqueous solution - Food 
particulates could be blanched in a hot acid bath. The ability to obtain a properly acidified 
product is dependent upon blanch time and temperature, as well as the concentration of 
acid. 

D.2 Immersed the blanch foods in an acid solution - The product is blanched in the 
steam or water blancher, then dipped into an acid solution, removed from the acid 
solution and placed into containers. The proper acidification depends upon how well the 
product is blanched, concentration of the acid and contact time. 

D,3 Direct batch acidification - Ingredients are mixed n a kettle, and acid is added 
directly to the batch. (An elevated temperature may improve the rate of acid penetration 
into solid particles.) The Ph of the batch is checked before the material is filled in 
containers. 

D.4 Add acid foods to low-acid foods in controlled portions - The acid food is 
mixed with the low-acid food to get an acidified food product. The proportion of acid 
food to low-acid food is important to obtain uniform and accurate control of pH: of the 
finished product. 

D,5 Directly add a predetermined amount of acid to individual containers during 
production - This involves addition of acid pellets, known volumes of fluid acid, or 
some other means of direct acidification of each container. 



Reference: Gavin, A. and L.M. Weddig. Ed. 1995. Canned Foods: Principles of Thermal Process 
Control, Acidification and Container Closure Evaluation. 6'^ ed. The Food Processors 
Institute. 1401 New York Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 2005. 



23 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Annex E 

Critical control points in the production of acidified foods 

For proper production of an acidified shelf-stable product, these are some critical control 
points that should be checked to ensure that the acidification procedure is under control. 

E.l Every container of food must be acidified in the same proportions. 

1 . When producing a solid-liquid mixture which will be acidified in the container by 
direct acidification, it is necessary to know and control the amount of solid material 
in each container. This permits the addition of the appropriate amount of acid to 
obtain a pH less than 4.6. 

2. Know the buffering capacity of the food. 

3. It is necessary to control the unit operations of peeling, blanching, exhausting, 
brining and closure. For example, some products are lye-peeled, and if the lye carry- 
over is not controlled, the product will have a higher initial pH than accounted for in 
the formulation. The end result will be a product that is not in control, and which 
has a higher pH value than required. The operations that, according to the process 
schedule, will affect the pH of the finished product must be controlled and recorded. 

E.2 Monitor acidification by pH measurement before and after equilibrium. The key is 
that the finished product pH must be 4.6 or less. Finished product pH means the pH of the 
product (components included) in the final container after themial processing - not the 
raw product pH. The pH measurements must be recorded and the records reviewed at the 
appropriate time intervals. 

E.3 Monitor the scheduled thermal process. The objective of the thermal process is to 
destroy vegetative cells of microorganisms of public health significance and those of non- 
health significance capable of reproducing in the food under normal condifions of storage 
and distribution. 

E.4 Container handling. Processed containers should be handled in such a manner as 
to minimize damage to the seals and/or product recontamination. 

E.5 Products found to have an equilibrium pH greater than 4.6 shall be reprocessed as 
low-acid food to render it safe, or destroyed. 



Reference: Gavin, A. and L.M. Weddig. Ed. 1995. Canned Foods: Principles of Thermal Process 
Control, Acidification and Container Closure Evaluation. 6"' ed. The Food Processors 
Institute. 1401 New York Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 2005. 



24 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Annex F 
Operation of steam retort and pressure canner 



F,l Steam retort 

Stage 1 - Preliminary checks and loading 

1 . Make sure the retort is empty and check that valves on air and water inlet lines are 
fully closed. 

2. Don't jar the retort when loading. Heavy knocks can damage the thermometer as 
well as the cans. 

3. Close and clamp the lid or door finnly. Tighten the bolts using your bar as an 
extension lever and not as a hammer. 

4. Use the right/established process time and temperature for the cans and ensure that 
the recording controller has been set for the coiTCct processing temperature. 

5. When operating a rotary retort, switch on the drive motor and check the speed. 

Stage 2 - Bringing up the retort - including venting 

1. Fully open the drain, overflow the vent valves. If there are no permanent bleeds on 
the thermometer pocket and on the lid or roof of the retort, open the petcocks at 
these positions. 

2. Turn on steam, making sure the main valve and by-pass valve, if fitted, are fully 
open. Write down the time at steam on. Do not leave the retort while the by-pass is 
open. 

3. Close the drain as soon as the mercury thermometer reads 205''F. To stop 
condensate building upon the bottom of the retort, leave the drain valve ''cracked 
open" during the rest of the come up period. 

4. Wait for the mercury thermometer to read 212"^?. Write down the time. Leave the 
vent valve fully open for the extra time stated in the processing schedule 
instructions. Remember: Any short cuts during venting will allow enough time for 
all the air to escape and the cans will not get their correct process. If in doubt about 
the right venting time for retorts, check with the management for details. 

5. When the full venting time has been given, but not before, close the vent or 
overflow valve. Petcocks when lifted should be left open. They help to keep the 
steam moving in the retort. 

6. Once the vent has been closed the retort temperature will rise rapidly towards 
process temperature. When the mercury thennometer reads about 5°F below 
processing temperature slowly close the by-pass, if in use. 

7. Do not leave the retort until the processing temperature has been reached and the 
automatic controller is operating properly. 

Stage 3 ~ Process or cook period 

1. Check the mercury thermometer and recording controller chart for temperature 
agreement. If the readings do not agree, inform the supervisor. The pressure reading 
on the gauge should correspond with the temperature. 

25 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 

2. Start timing the process from the moment the mercury thermometer and the 
controller show processing temperature has been reached. Time the process to the 
nearest minute with a good clock. Do not use wristwatch or trust into memory. 
Write down the time that process temperature was reached and when the cook will 
be finished. Check the addition to ensure that the time has been worked out 
correctly. 

3. Check the process temperature on the mercury thermometer regularly throughout 
the process. Depend on the mercury thermometer to tell the temperature accurately. 

4. When the correct process temperature has been held for the full time all the bacteria 
will be dead. It is then the time to cool the cans as rapidly as possible. 

Stage 4 - Cooling 

1 . Fill the retort with chlorinated cooling water and either leaving the cans in the retort 
with the overflow running or transferring them to a cooling canal 

2. For some types of cans, and certainly the larger diameter cans, the pressure in the 
retort must be allowed to drop too quickly during cooling or the cans will peak. 

3. To avoid peaking cans, pressure cooling must be employed. For this, compressed air 
and water are used together to maintain the pressure in the retort during the early 
stages of cooling. When the retort is nearly full of water the pressure may be 
released completely and the lid opened on vertical retorts. Cooling is not finished 
until the can contents have reached the correct temperature. They must not be under 
cooled or they will lose quality when cased. Equally they must not be overcooled or 
they will be difficult to dry. 

F.2 Pressure canner 

1 . Follow manufacturer's directions for use. 

2. Have 2 to 3 inches of boiling water in the canner. 

3. Arrange containers on a rack so steam can flow freely around each one. 

4. Fasten canner lid securely so no steam escapes around the rim. 

5. Watch for steam to escape steadily through the petcock. When steam has escaped 
for 10 minutes,close the petcock or place a weighted gauge on canner. This 
''exhausting" step is very important to remove all air from the canner. Air trapped in 
the canner will prevent containers from heating adequately. This step is needed even 
for those types of pressure canners labeled "self-exhausfing". 

6. When the correct pressure is reached, set a timer for the recommended processing 
time. Also write down the time when processing will be completed as a double 
check on timer accuracy. At sea level, use 10 pounds pressure for a weighted gauge; 
1 1 pounds for a dial gauge. At altitudes above 1,000 to 2,000 feet, it is necessary to 
increase pounds of pressure to compensate for decreased atmospheric pressure. 

Elevation Pounds Pressure 

Weighted gauge canner 

Sea level to 1,000 ft 101b 

Above LOOO ft 15 1b 



26 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Dial gauge canner 

Sea level to 2,000 ft H lb 

2,001-4,000 ft 121b 

4,001-6,000 ft 13 1b 

6,001-8,000 ft 141b 

Watch the canner continuously to be sure that pressure stays constant. If pressure 
fluctuates, regulate it immediately by adjusting the heat, not by opening the petcock 
or removing the weight. Fluctuating pressure may cause liquid to be drawn from the 
containers and cause some containers not to seal. 

When the timer sounds, remove the canner from heat. Do not cool the canner with 
water or cold towels. When the pressure returns to zero, slowly open the petcock or 
remove the weighted gauge. After 2 minutes, unfasten the cover and tilt the far side 
up so that steam does not bum the handler. Immediately remove the containers. 



27 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Annex G 

FAO/WHO Alimentarins sampling plan for prepackaged foods 

(AQL=6.5) CAC/RM 42-1969 

G.l Scope 

The sampling plans in Annex H of this document apply to the acceptance of defective 
units (defectives) in lots of prepackaged foods, as defined in individual Codex Standards, 
insofar as the Sampling Plans have been specifically included in such Codex Standards 
for the purpose of detennining the acceptability or otherwise of the lot. They shall be used 
in accordance with the provisions dealing with the classification of defectives and lot 
acceptance in Codex Standards to which these sampling plans are stated to apply and 
within the limits of Section 2 of this document. 

G.2 Field of application 

G.2.1 Type of examination to which the sampling plans apply 

The sampling plans in Annex H of this document are intended primarily to cover the 
quality provisions of Codex Commodity Standards where an AQL of 6.5 is appropriate 
for the defective unit as defined in Codex Standards. For the purposes of these sampling 
plans, ''quality" refers to those factors or product characteristics which are evaluated by 
sensory or physical means, such as colour, flavor, texture, defects, size and appearance. 
They are not intended however, to cover factors which may represent a hazard to health 
or which are unwholesome or otherwise highly objectionable to the consumer on the basis 
of which responsible authorities would reject the lot. Examples of these latter categories 
are pesticide residues, contaminants, blown cans, foreign material such as stones and 
large insects. Other criteria and sampling plans must be used in dealing with factors of 
this type. While these sampling plans are intended primarily for quality evaluation, they 
may be found suitable for other detenninations such as net weight, Brix values and 
drained weight, provided an acceptance criterion with an AQL of 6.5 is appropriate for 
these detenninations. In this case a definition of ''defective" for the specific detemiination 
under consideration would be required in the respective Codex Standard. 

G.2,2 Size of lot and point of application 

The sampling plans and acceptance procedures contained in this document are designed 
to cover lots that represent substantial portions of factory production or relatively large 
block of merchandise. The plans may also be used for small lots, but Governments may 
elect to use sampling procedures of their own choosing for enforcement at the retail level. 
This is done in recognition of the high ratio of sample size to lot size when dealing with 
small lots and the probability that once the production of defective or non-conforming 
product is no longer likely to be unifonn between and within the smaller lots. 

G.2.3 Principles of acceptance sampling 

For detailed explanation of the statistical basis for these sampling plans, see Annex H of 
this document. 

28 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



G.3 Description 

The sampling plans - Annex H of this document - are a tabular presentation appropriate 
for acceptance sampling of prepackaged foods where an AQL of 6.5 has been accepted 
for certain products characteristics. The plans include: 

1 . Inspection levels; 

2. Sample sizes in relation to lot size and container size; and 

3 . Acceptance numbers. 

A sample is drawn from the lot according to the appropriate schedule in the sampling 
plans. Each sample unit is examined according to the requirements of the individual 
Codex Standard and classified as either "acceptable" or as "defective". Based on the total 
number of "defectives" in the sample, the lot either "meets" or "fails" the requirements of 
the Codex standard, to which these sampling plans apply, according to the following 
criteria: 

Meets if the number of "defectives" is equal to, or less than, the acceptance number 
of the appropriate plan. 

Fails if the number of "defectives" exceeds the acceptance number of the 
appropriate plan. 

G.4 Definitions 

GAA Acceptable quality level (AQL) 

The maximum percent defective units (defectives) permitted in a lot which will be 
accepted approximately 95% of the time. For example, a sampling plan at an AQL of 6.5 
will accept a lot or production which has 6.5 percent defective approximately 95% of the 
time. 

G.4.2 Acceptance number (c) 

The number in a sampling plan which indicates the maximum number of defectives 
permiUed in the sample in order to consider the lot as meeting the requirements of a 
Codex Standard. 

G.4.3 Buyer's risk 

The risk a buyer takes that a lot will be accepted on the basis of these sampling plans even 
though such a lot may fail to conform to the requirements of the Codex Standard. 

G.4,4 Producer's risk 

The risk a producer takes that a lot will fail on the basis of these sampling plans even 
though such a lot in reality may meet the requirements of the Codex Standard. 



29 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



G.4,5 Defective 

A "defective" is a sample unit which does not conforai with a certain specified 
requirement (or requirements) of a Codex Standard (on the basis of total ''demerit points", 
individual tolerances for "defects", etc.). The criteria on the basis of which a sample unit 
is classified as "defective" are specified in individual Codex standards to which these 
sampling plans apply (see also G.2.1 and G.2.2 of this document). Although a defective is 
a sample unit which fails to meet certain specified requirements in Codex standards, it 
does so only to an extent which is slightly below those requirements and which would not 
make the product objectionable to the consumer as specified in G.2 - Field of 
Application, G.2.1. 

G.4.6 Inspection 

The process of measuring, examining, testing or otherwise comparing a container or unit 
of product (sample unit) with the requirements of a Codex standard. 

G.4.7 Inspection level 

The terni used to indicate the relative amount of sampling performed on lots of a given 
product or class of products. 

G.4.8 Lot or inspection lot 

Collection of primary containers, or sample units, of the same size, type and style which 
have been manufactured or processed under essentially the same conditions. 

G.4.9 Lot size (N) 

The number of primary containers, or sample units, in the lot. 

G.4.10 Sample unit 

The individual container (primary container), a portion of the contents of the primary 
container or a composite mixture of product that is examined or tested as a single unit. 

G.4.11 Sample 

Any number of sample units which are used for inspection. Generally the sample 
comprises all of the containers or sample units drawn for examination or testing purposes 
from a particular lot, 

G,4.12 Sampling 

The process of drawing or selecting containers or sample units from a lot or production. 

G.4,13 Sample size (n) 

The number of containers, or sample units comprising the total sample drawn from a lot 
or production. 

30 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 

G.4ol4 Sampling plan 

A sampling scheme which includes sample size, inspection levels, acceptance and/or 
rejection numbers so that a decision can be made to accept or reject the lot or production 
based on the results of inspection and testing of the sample. 

G,5 Application of the sampling plans 

G.5.1 Information required 

In using the sampling plans in Annex H of this document, the following infomiation shall 
be known: 

a. Container size (net weight in kg or lb) 

b. Inspection level (see G.4.7) 

c. Lot size (N) (see G.4.9) 

d. Requirements of the Codex Standard with respect to product quality (i.e. 
classification of defectives and requirements for acceptance of the lot). 

G.5.2 Inspection 

The following steps are taken: 

a. The appropriate inspection level is selected as follows: 
Inspection level I - Nonnal sampling 

Inspection level II - Disputes (Codex referee purposes sample size), 
enforcement or need for better lot estimate. 

b. Determine the lot size (N), i.e. number of primary containers or sample units. 

c. Detennine the number of sample units (sample size (n)) to be drawn from the 
inspection lot, consideration being giving to container size, lot size, and inspection 
level. 

d. Draw at random the required number of sample units from the lot giving proper 
consideration to code or other identifying marks in selection of the sample. 

e. Examine the product in accordance with the requirements of the Codex Standard. 
Classify any container or sample unit which fails to meet the specified quality level 
of the standard as a defective on the basis of the classification of defectives 
contained in the Codex Standard. 

f Refer to the appropriate sampling plan in Appendix I. 

g. Consider the lot acceptable if the number of defectives is equal to or less than the 

acceptance number (c) of the appropriate sampling plan contained in Appendix I of 

this document, 
h. Consider the lot as failing if the number of defectives exceeds the acceptance 

number (c) of the appropriate sampling plan contained in Annex H of this 

document. 

G.53 Examples for the application of the sampling plans 

a. Inspection level I (see G.5.2 (a)) 

A lot consists of 1200 cases, packed in 12 x 2.5 lb primary containers per case. A 
decision is made to use inspection level I since the goods are not in dispute and 

31 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 

there is no history of controversy over quaUty. A container is defined in the Codex 
Standards or is taken to be the sample unit. 



Lot size (N) = 1 200 x 1 2 or 1 4,400 units 

Container size = 2,5 lb 

Inspection level = I (see sampling Plan 1 , Appendix II) 

Sample size (n) ^ 13 

Acceptance number (c) = 2 

In this example if there are no more than two (2) "defectives" in a sample 
size of 13 containers the lot is considered acceptable. If, however, there are 
three (3) or more "defectives" in the sample the lot is considered as failing 
to meet the requirements, A "defective" as used in the Sampling Plans is 
defined in the Codex Standard. 

b. Inspection level II (see G.5.2 (a)) 

If in the foregoing example (G.5.3 (a)) the quality of the goods is in dispute and a 
referee method is required for the examination or re-examination of the lot, an 
increased sample size is taken at inspection level II, selecting at least 21 containers. 

Lot size (N) = 1 200 x 1 2 or 1 4,400 units 

Inspection level =^ II (see sampling plan 2, Appendix II) 

Sample size (n) =21 

Acceptance number (c) = 3 

G.5.4 Notes on sample size 

It is not necessary to restrict the sample size to the minimum corresponding to the 
appropriate lot size and inspection level. In all cases a larger sample may be drawn. In the 
example at G. 5. 3(b) an even more reliable estimate of lot quality could be made by taking 
a sample of 29 or even 48 and applying the corresponding acceptance numbers of 4 and 6 
respectively. 



32 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Annex H 



1 Sampling plan 1 (Inspection level I, AQL = 6.5) 

1.1 Net weight is equal to or less than 1 kg (2.2 lb) 



Lot size (N) 


Sample size (n) 


Acceptance no. (c) 


4,800 or less 


6 


1 


4,801 -24,000 


13 


2 


24,001-48,000 


21 


3 


48,001-84,000 


29 


4 


84,001 - 144,000 


48 


6 


144,001-240,000 


84 


9 


More than 240,000 


126 


13 



L2 Net weight is greater than 1 kg (2.2 lb) but not more than 4.5 kg (10 lb) 



Lot size (N) 


Sample size (n) 


Acceptance no. (c) 


2,400 or less 


6 


1 


2,841 -15,000 


13 


2 


15,001-24,000 


21 


3 


24,001-42,000 


29 


4 


44,001-72,000 


48 


6 


72,001 - 120,000 


84 


9 


More than 120,000 


126 


13 



1.3 Net weight greater than 4.5 kg (10 lb) 



Lot size (N) 


Sample size (n) 


Acceptance no. (c) 


600 or less 


6 


1 


601 -2,000 


13 


2 


2,001 - 7,200 


21 


3 


7,201-15,000 


29 


4 


15,001-24,000 


48 


6 


24,001-42,000 


84 


9 


More than 42,000 


126 


13 



33 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



2 
2.1 



Sampling plan 2 (Inspection level II, AQL = 6.5) 

Net weight is equal to or less than 1 kg (2.2 lb) 



Lot size (N) 


Sample size (n) 


Acceptance no. (c) 


4,800 or less 


13 


2 


4,801 -24,000 


21 


3 


24,001-48,000 


29 


4 


48,001 - 84,000 


48 


6 


84,001 - 144,000 


84 


9 


144,001-240,000 


126 


13 


More than 240,000 


200 


19 



2,2 Net weight is greater than 1 kg (2.2 lb) but not more than 4.5 kg (10 lb) 



Lot size (N) 


Sample size (ii) 


Acceptance no. (c) 


2,400 or less 


13 


2 


2,841 -15,000 


21 


3 


15,001-24,000 


29 


4 


24,001-42,000 


48 


6 


44,001 - 72,000 


84 


9 


72,001 - 120,000 


126 


13 


More than 120,000 


200 


19 



2.3 Net weight greater than 4.5 kg (10 lb) 



Lot size (N) 


Sample size (n) 


Acceptance no. (c) 


600 or less 


13 


2 


601 -2,000 


21 


3 


2,001 - 7,200 


29 


4 


7,201-15,000 


48 


6 


15,001-24,000 


84 


9 


24,001-42,000 


126 


13 


More than 42,000 


200 


19 



34 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Annex I 
Explanatory notes on acceptance sampling 

1 Sampling 

Sampling is the process of drawing or selecting containers or sample units from a lot or 
production. As a result of sampling, information is obtained by which an estimate can be 
made to accept, reject or negotiate the merchandise in question. Sampling procedures 
which contain both sample size and acceptance criteria are commonly refeiTed to as 
"acceptance sampling". 

There are many types of acceptance sampling systems in use today. A plan that is suitable 
for one product or type of inspection may be entirely unsuitable for another product or 
inspection system. The plan selected is determined to a large extent by the degree to 
which it satisfies the needs of the user. 

In developing these acceptance sampling plans, initial consideration has been given to 
quality evaluation of the end product. This requires opening of containers with resultant 
loss of products. This type of inspection is referred to as "destructive sampling". Not only 
is the loss of product an important consideration, but also destructive sampling is 
generally quite time consuming. Consequently, both inspection time and economic loss of 
product through destructive inspection are significant limiting factors in developing 
sampling plans for the quality evaluation of processed foods. Sample size must 
necessarily be relatively small in order to make the plan practical in application. 

2 Risks 

The aim of any sampling plan should be to accept more "good" lots and reject more "bad" 
lots. Since probability and chance are involved, decisions will, of necessity, involve an 
element of risk. This risk factor has to be accepted as a part of any sampling procedure. 
One method of reducing the buyer's risk of accepting deliveries of non-conforming 
quality is to increase sample size, hi other words, the larger the sample, the less risk 
involved in accepting "bad" lots. Inspection level is the term indicating the relative 
amount of sampling and inspection perfonned on lots of a given product or class of 
products. If the inspection lot is packed under close control and meets the requirements of 
the Codex Standard, changing inspection levels do not appreciably change the buyer- 
seller risk. In other words, this would be a "good" lot and should be passed practically all 
of the time by a good sampling plan. The effectiveness of a sampling plan in 
discriminating between "good" and "bad" lots can be estimated by examination of the OC 
cm-ves (see Appendix III) for the various sample sizes. For example, if a lot is produced 
so that it does not contain more than 6.5 percent defectives, such lot will be passed at 
least 95 percent of the time by the sampling plans applicable for an AQL of 6.5. On the 
other hand, if the production contains an appreciable amount of defective material, a 
higher inspection level (i.e. a larger sample size) will reduce the risk of accepting these 
non-confonning lots. The effect of increased sample size is explained in greater detail 
under the discussion of OC cui^ves. 



35 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



3 AQL 

One of the initial considerations in the development of a statistical acceptance sampling 
plan is the selection of an appropriate AQL or Acceptable Quality Level. This 
characteristic is defined as the maximum percent defective units in lots that will be 
accepted most of the time (approximately 95 percent of the time). Lots or production 
containing more defective material will be accepted less often - the ratio of rejection to 
acceptance increasing as the sample size increases and as the percent defective material in 
the lot increases. 

hi developing these sampling plans, an AQL of 6.5 was selected for lot acceptance with 
respect to quality evaluation. In other words, an AQL of 6.5 is used in these sampling 
plans (Appendix I) to determine whether or not the inspection lot meets minimum quality 
requirements of the Codex Standard. This value was selected on the basis of years of 
experience and the capability of industry to produce preserved fioiits and vegetables and 
certain other processed foods at this level under good commercial practice. For other 
factors (such as Brix value and net weight) other AQLs may be selected. Sampling plans 
can be drawn up for a full range of AQLs from a very strict value of 0.10 to a rather 
lenient value of 25.0 and higher, depending either on the type of product and/or on the 
criteria involved. 

4 Inspection level 

These sampling plans provide for two inspection levels I and IL These two levels provide 
some discretion in the application of the Sampling Plans to the inspection of a 
commodity, depending upon circumstances. For normal trading purposes Level I is 
recommended, hi the case of dispute or controversy, i.e. for Codex referee purposes, 
Level II is recommended. Smaller sample sizes than those provided by Levels I and II 
may be justified, e.g. when a delivery is being checked for labeling or for detection of 
non-pennitted additives. However, the acceptance sampling criteria of the Plans, which 
pennit 6.5 percent "defectives", do not apply to such an inspection. 

5 OC Curves 

The problem of buyer's and seller's risks in relation to sample size and lot quality is 
illustrated through the use of operating characteristic curves (OC Curves). Appendix III 
contains OC Curves for the sampling plans contained in Appendix I of this document. For 
purposes of destructive inspection sample sizes in excess of 84 are not practical, since any 
further inspection beyond this point will not generally provide sufficient additional data to 
warrant the time and expense of testing. 

In studying the OC Curves for AQL 6.5 several conclusions can be drawn, namely: 

1 . All of the Curves have the same general slope although the curve for sample size 6 
is flaUer. 

2. All curves intersect at a point represented by the coordinates of ''6.5 percent 
defective" and approximately "95 percent probability of acceptance". 

3. As the sample size increases, the curved become steeper and more discriminating, 
i.e. lots having ''defectives" in excess of 6.5 percent are rejected with greater 
frequency. 

36 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 

4. The reliability of the larger sample size is not in direct proportion to the increased 
sample. For example, for a lot that is 20 percent defective a sample size of 6 (curve 
E) will accept such lot 65 percent of the time; whereas a sample size of 48 (curve L) 
will accept the same lot 22 percent of the time. In this example the ratio between 
probabilities of acceptance is only 3 to 1. 

To illustrate the use of the OC Curves (AQL 6.5) let it be assumed that a lot is 10 percent 
defective. A lot with 6.5 percent defectives will be accepted 95 percent of the time, the 
frequency of acceptance increasing as the percent defective decreases. However, the 10 
percent defective lot fails to measure up to requirements, and while it may be a marginal 
lot, it may not be acceptable. An examination of the OC curves shows that a sample size 
of 6 (curve E) will accept this marginal lot 88 percent of the time; a sample size of 84 
(curve M) is somewhat better, accepting the lot 65 percent of the time. 
If on the other hand, the lot is 30 percent defective, a sample size of 6 (curve E) will 
accept the lot only 42 percent of the time, whereas a sample size of 21 (curve J) will 
accept such a lot only 8 percent of the thue and a sample size of 84 (curve M) will always 
fail such a lot. 



37 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Annex J 



OPERATING CHARACTER iSTtC CURVES 













e^0L = 6.S 










Jdontiftcation lettar of OC curve i 


E 


H 


J ! K 


L 1 M 


N -\ 


n c r 


fi 


c- r 


rt 




c r 


n ! c f 


n 


c r 


■ a c r 


(^ 


t> r 


e • 1 2. 


13 


2 5 


at 


3 4 2^1 4 5 


40 


6 7 


64] 9 10 


Fa6Jj3 t4i 






O 



K 

O 



z: 

U 



OC CURVE ^ AQL - 6.5 



[OOr 




O 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 



QUAIITY OF SUBMIfTtD LOTS, I00|» 



38 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Annex K 

Determination of lead 
by the Atomic absorption spectrophotometric method 



K.l Apparatus 

(a) Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. - Operated at 217 mn or 283.3 nm. 

(b) Stirring motor. - With eccentric coupHng for stirring centrifiige tubes. 

K.2 Reagents 

(a) Strontium solution. ~ 2%. Dissolve 6 g SrCl2.6H20 in 100 ml water. 

(b) Ternary acid mixture. - Add 20 ml H2SO4 to 100 ml water, mix, add 100 ml HNO3 
and 40 ml HCIO4, and mix. 

(c) Nitric acid. - Add 128 mL redistilled HNO3 to 500 mL - 800 mL distilled or 
deionized water and dilute to 2 L. Redistilled HNO3 may be diluted and used 
without redistillation. 

(d) Lead standard solutions. - (1) Stock solution. - lOOOmg/mL. Dissolve 1,5985 g 
Pb(N03)2, recrystallized in ca 500 mL 1 N HNO3 in 1 L volumetric flask and dilute 
to volume with 1 N HNO3. (2) Working solutions. - Prepare 100 mg Pb/mL by 
diluting 10 mL stock solution to 100 mL with 1 N HNO3. Dilute 1 mL, 3 mL, 5 mL, 
10 mL, 15 mL and 25 mL aliquots of this solution to 100 mL with 1 N HNO3 (1 mg 
Pb/mL, 3 mg Pb/mL, 5 mg Pb/mL, 10 mg Pb/mL, 15 mg Pb/mL and 25 mg Pb/mL, 
respectively). 

K.3 Separation of lead 

K.3,1 Accurately weigh sample containing 10 g dry matter and 3 mg Pb. Place in 500 ml 
boiling or Kjedhal flask and add 1 mL 2% Sr solution, and several glass beads. Prepare 
reagent blank and carry through same operations as sample. Add 15 mL ternary acid 
mixture, for each dry matter and let stand for 2 hours. Heat under hood or water vacuum 
manifold system until flask contains only H2SO4 and inorganic salts. 

K.3.2 Cool digest for 1 few minutes. (Digest should be cool enough to add ca 15 ml 
water safely, but hot enough to boil when water is added.) Wash while still hot into 40 
mL - 50 mL tapered-bottom centrifuge tube and swirl. Let cool, centrifuge 10 minutes at 
350 X g, and decant liquid into waste beaker. (Film-like precipitate on surface may be 
discarded.) Dislodged precipitate by vigorously stimng with eccentric-coupled stimng 
motor. To complete transfer, add 20 mL water and 1 mL 1 N H2SO4 to original flask and 
heat. Do not omit this step even though it appears transfer was complete in first wash. 
Wash hot contents of original digestion flask into centrifuge tube containing precipitate. 
Swirl to mix, cool, centrifuge and decant liquid into waste beaker. 

K33 Dislodged precipitate by stirring vigorously, add 25 mL saturated (NH4)2C03 
solution (ca 20%) and stir until all precipitate is dispersed. Let stand for 1 hour, centrifuge 
and decant liquid into waste beaker. Repeat (NH4)2C03 treatment. 



39 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



K.3.4 After decanting, invert centrifuge tube on paper towel and drain all liquid. Add 
5 mL HNO3 (use larger volume 1 N HNO3 in both sample and blank if >25 mg Pb is 
expected), stir vigorously to expel CO2 or use ultrasonic bath for 2 minutes - 3 minutes, 
let stand for 30 minutes and centrifuge if precipitate remains. 

K.4 Determination 

Set instrument to previously established optimum conditions, using air-C2H2 oxidizing 
flame and 217 nm or 283.3 nm resonant wavelength. Detemiine A of sample and blank 
solutions and 5 standards within the optimum working range (10% - 80% T) before and 
after sample readings. Flush burner with 1 N HNO3 and check point between readings. 
Determine lead from standard curve of A against mg Pb/mL: 

ppm Pb = [ (mg Pb/mL) x (mL 1 N HNO3)] / g sample 



40 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Annex L 



Determination of tin 
by theAtomic absorption spectrophotometric method 

L.l Reagents and apparatus 

(a) Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. - With simultaneous background correction 
and N2O-C2H2 burner. 

(b) Tin standard solutions. - (1) Stock solution. - 1 mg Sn/mL. Dissolve 1.000 g Sn 
(reagent grade) in ca 200 mL concentrated HCl. Add ca 200 mL water, cool to 
ambient temperature, and dilute to 1 L with water. (2) Working solutions. - mg 
Sn/mL, 50 mg Sn/mL, 100 mg Sn/mL, 150 mg Sn/mL and 200 mg Sn/mL. Into each 
of five 100 mL volumetric flasks, pipette 10 mL concentrated HCl, 1.0 mL KCl 
solution, and mL Sn, 5 mL Sn, 10 mL Sn, 15 mL Sn or 20 mL Sn stock solution. 
Dilute to volume with water. 

(c) Potassium chloride solution. - 10 mg K/mL. Dissolve 1.91 g KCl and dilute to 
1 00 mL with water. 

(d) Nitric acid. - Concentrated. Test purity by dilufing portion 1 :4 volume/volume with 
water and aspirating into AA spectrophotometer. Absence of Sn signal indicates 
suitability for analysis. 

L.2 Preparation of samples 

L.2.1 Accurately weigh (±0.01 g) sample into 250 mL Erlenmeyer: 20 g foods 
containing 50% - 75% water, and 5 g - 10 g solids or semi-solids. Dry in oven at 120°. 

L.2.2 Do not add HNO3 to samples unless there is time to complete this stage of 
digestion in the same day. Add 30 mL concentrated HNO3 to flask and, within 15 
minutes, heat genfly in hood to initiate digestion, avoiding excessive frothing. Genfly boil 
until 3 mL - 6 mL digest remains or until sample just begins to dry on bottom. Do not let 
sample char. Remove flask from heat. Without delay, continue as follows, including 2 
empty flasks for reagent blanks: Add 25 mL concentrated HCl, and heat gently ca 15 
minutes until sample bumping from evolution of CI2 stops. Increase heat, and boil until 
10 mL - 15 mL volume remains, using similar flask with 15 mL water to estimate 
volume. Add ca 40 mL water, swirl and pour into 100 mL volumetric flask, rinsing once 
with ca 10 mL water. When HCl is present in digest, samples may stand overnight or 
longer. 

L.2.3 Pipette 1.0 mL KCl solution into each volumetric flask. Cool to ambient 
temperature and dilute to volume with water, adding more water to approximately 
compensate for volume of fat in flask. Mix well and fiher ca 30 mL - 50 mL through dry, 
medium porosity paper into dry, polypropylene or polyethylene screw-cap bottle. Do not 
filter blanks. Cap botfles until analysis. Solufions are stable several months. 

L.3 Determination 

L.3.1 Using 200 mg/mL standard and 235.5 nm Sn line, optimize spectrophotometer, 
burner and flame according to manufacturer's instructions. Then increase N2O flow or 

41 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 

decrease C2H2 flow to give oxidizing flame; red part should be ca 4 mm above burner 
slot. This reduces sensitivity but improves precision to ±0.0004 A for blank and 0.201 
±0.001 A for mg/mL. Periodically monitor sensitivity decreases >20%, turn off flame and 
carefully clean burner slot. 

L 3 2 Zero spectrophotometer while aspirating water but do not adjust zero until after 
determinations; autozero reduces precision. Aspirate water before and after each sample 
standard and blank solution. Take three 5 s readings for each solution, average and 
reference all A measurements to A of water. 

L 3 3 Record A for standards, draw calibration curve, and visually check for inaccurate 
standards. Two times blank-corrected A for 50 mg/mL standard should differ by more 
than 3% from blank-corrected A for 100 mg/mL standard. 

L.3.4 Block standard blank with 50 mg/mL standard, using ratio of A, calculate 
concentration of standard blank: 

Standard blank (mg/mL) = [A</(A' - A„)] x 50 

Where A' and Ao refer to blank and mean of readings for 50 mg/mL blocking standard, 
respectively. 

L.3.5 Add standard blank concentration to nominal standard concentrations to obtam 
true standard concentrations. 

L.3.6 Measure A of sample blanks as for standard blank and calculate: 

Sample blank (mg/mL) = (A^A') x true concentration of 50 mg/mL standard 

Where Ao and A' refer to blank and 50 mg/mL standard, respectively. Calculate mean 
concentration of sample blanks, B. 

L.3.7 Determine sample solution concentrations by one of 2 ways: (1) Measure A of 
sample solutions (maximum 3 samples) and 50 mg/mL standard, (or 100 mg/mL 
standard, depending on sample concentration level), blocking samples with standards. 
Calculate blank-corrected sample solution concentrations: 

Sample concentration (mg/mL) = (A/A' x true standard concentration) - B 

Where A and A' refer to sample and standard, respectively. 

L 3.8 When high accuracy is not required or when calibration curvature is extensive, use 
procedure (1) af^er confirmation that sensitivity changes and baseline drift are absent 
during analytical run. (2) Calibrate using blank and 50 mg/mL, 100 mg/mL and 150 mg/ 
mL standards. Run sample blanks and samples, and calculate solution concentrations 
using either instrument microprocessor or calibration curve. Calculate mean of sample 
blank concentrations, B. Calculate blank-corrected solution concentrations (mg/mL) by 
subtracting B from solution concentrations. 



42 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



For both (1) and (2), calculate sample concentrations: 

[blank-corrected solution concentration 

Sample (mg/g) = x 100 

Sample weight (g) 



43 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 

Annex M 
Determination of drained weight 

M.l Apparatus and sieves 

(a) Balance with capacity of 2 kg and sensitivity of 0. 1 g 

(b) Sieves use 20 cm (8") diameter for containers 1.36 kg (3 lb) or 30 cm (12") 
diameter for containers 3 lb. 

M.2 Determination 

M.2.1 Weigh full can, open and pour entire contents on NO. 8 sieve. 

M.2.2 Without shifting product, incline sieve at ca 17-20° to facilitate drainage. 

M.2.3 Drain for 2 minutes, direcdy weigh either drained solids or free liquid and weigh 
dry empty can. 

M.2.4 From weights obtained, determine % liquid and % drained solid contents. 



44 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Annex N 

Determination of net weight and washed drained 
weight (For packs with sauces) 



N.l Determination of net weight 

N,L1 Net contents of all sample units shall be determined by the following procedure: 

a) Weigh the unopened container; 

b) Open the container and remove the contents; 

c) Weigh the empty container, (including the end) after removing excess liquid and 
adhering meat; and 

d) Subtract the weight of the empty container from the weight of the unopened 
container. The resultant figure will be the net content. 

N.2 Determination of washed drained weight (For packs with sauces) 

N»2,l Maintain the container at a temperature between 20'^C and 30^C for a minimum of 
1 2 hours prior to examination. 

N,2.2 Open and tilt the container and wash the covering sauce and then the ftill contents 
with hot tap water (approximately 40°C), using a wash bottle (e.g. plastic) on the tared 
circular sieve. 

N,2.3 Wash the contents of the sieve with hot water until free of adhering sauce; where 
necessary separate optional ingredients (spices, vegetables, fruits) with pincers. Incline 
the sieve at an angle of approximately 17° - 20° and allow the fish to drain two minutes, 
measured from the time the washing procedure has finished. 

N.2.4 Remove adhering water fi*om the bottom of the sieve by use of paper towel. 
Weigh the sieve containing the washed drained fish. 

N.2.5 The washed drained weight is obtained by subtracting the weight of the sieve from 
the weight of the sieve and drained product. 



45 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



Annex O 
Determination of presentation 



O.l The presentation of all sample units shall be determined by the following 
procedure. 

0,1.1 Open the can and drain the contents. 

O.L2 Remove and place the contents onto a tared 1.2 cm mesh screen equipped with a 
collecting pan. 

0,1.3 Separate the fish with a spatula being careful not to break the configuration of the 
pieces. 

Ensure that the smaller pieces of fish are moved to the top of a mesh opening to allow 
them to fall through the screen onto the collecting pan. 

0,1.4 Segregate the material on the pan according to flaked, grated (shredded) or paste 
and weigh the individual portions to establish the weight of each component. 

0.1.5 If declared as a "chunk" pack weigh the screen with the fish retained and record 
the weight. 

Subtract the weight of the sieve from this weight to establish the weight of solid and 
chunk fish. 

0.1.6 If declared as "solid" pack, remove any small pieces (chunks) from the screen and 
reweigh. 

Subtract the weight of the sieve firom this weight to establish the weight of "solid" fish. 

0.2 Calculations 



0.2.1 Express the weight of flaked, grated (shredded and paste) as a percentage of the 
total drained weight offish. 

Total weight of drained fish 

% flakes X 100 

Weight of flakes 

0.2.2 Calculate the weight of solid and chunk fish retained on the screen by difference 
and express as a % of the total drained weight offish. 

Total weight of drained fish 

% solid & chunk fish = x 100 

Weight of solid &chunk fish 



46 



PNS/BFAD 07:2006 



0.2.3 Calculate the weight of solid fish retained on the screen by difference and express 
as a % of the total drained weight of the fish. 

%of solid fish = Total weight of drained fish x 100 

Weight of solid fish 



47 



United States Standards for Grades of Tomato Sauce, November 17, 1994, Processed 
Products Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Division, AMS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Washington D.C 

Avery, A.C. 1950, Fish Processing Handbook of the Philippines, US Government 
Printing Office: Washington, D.C 

Ganaden, S.R and F. Lavapie. 1999, Common and Local Names of Marine Fishes of the 
Philippines, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Philippines. 386 p 

Gavin, A. and L.M. Weddig. Ed. 1995, Canned Foods: Principles of Themal Process 
Control, Acidification and Container Closure Evaluation, 6* ed. The Food Processors 
Institute, 1401 New York Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005 

Gonzalez, B. 2000, Palawan Foodfishes, Palawan Sustainable Development 
Communications, 82 p 

Footitt, R.J. and Lewis, A.S. Ed. 1995, The Canning of Fish and Meat, Blackie Academic 
& Professional, Wester Cleddens Road, Bishopbriggs, Glasgow G64 2NZ, UK 

Wheaton, F.W. and Lawson, T.B. 1985, Processing Aquatic Food Products, John Wiley 
and Sons, Inc. USA 

www.cfsan.fda.gov/~comm/haccpsea.html . Seafood HACCP. 
www.eesc.orst.edu . Canning Tomatoes and Tomato Products. 
www.langual.orR . The International Framework for Food Description. 



?, 



\ References PNS/BFAD 07:2006 

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this 
document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the 
latest edition of the references document (including any amendments) applies. 

A.O. No, 153 s. 2004, Guidelines, Current Good Manufacturing Practice in 
Manufacturing, Packing, Repacking or Holding Food, Bureau of Food and Drugs, 
Department of Health, Alabang, Muntinlupa City, Philippines 

A.O. 0018 s. 2005, Philippine National Standard on Ethnic Food Products - Dry Mixes 
and Sweet Preserves, Bureau of Food and Drugs, Department of Health, Alabang, 
Muntinlupa City, Philippines 

Association of Analytical Chemists, Official Methods of Analysis Manual, 16^'' ed,, 1995. 
481 North Frederick Ave., Suite 500, Gaithersburg, MD 20877-2417. U.S. A 

Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Department of Agriculture, Quezon City, 
Philippines 

FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission Manual. 1995, Codex Alimentarius 
Commission, Food and Agriculture Organization, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 
Rome, Italy. 

Fish Products Standards and Methods Manual, Canned Salmon Standard, Chapter 2, 
Standard 8, 1996, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 59 Camelot Drive, Suite 128, East 
Nepean, Ontario, K1A0Y9. 

Food, definition, ALINORM 04/27/41, para. 88 and Appendix VI, 2005, Codex 
Alimentarius Commission, Food and Agriculture Organization, Viale delle Tenne di 
Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy, 

Philippine National Standard No. 991:1993, Agricultural and Other Food Products - 
Bottled Drinking Water Specifications, Bureau of Product Standards, Department of 
Trade and Industry. Makati City, Philippines. 

Philippine Nafional Standard/Bureau of Food and Drugs 04:2006, Ethnic Food Products - 
Dried Salted Fish - Specification, Bureau of Food and Dmgs, Department of Health, Sta. 
Cruz, Manila, Philippines. 

Philippine National Standard/Bureau of Food and Drugs 05:2006, Recommended Code of 
Practice for the Processing and Handling of Dried Fish, Bureau of Food and Drugs, 
Department of Health, Sta. Cruz, Manila, Philippines. 

Recommended International Code of Practice for Salted Fish, 1979, Codex Alimentarius 
Commission Manual, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Food and Agriculture 
Organization, Viale delle Tenne di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. 



'if. '.' 

BUREAU OF PRODUa STANDARDS 
your partner in quality 

The use of the PS Certification Mark is governed by the provisions of Department Administrative Order 
No. 01 series of 1997 - Revised Rules and Regulations Conceming the Philippine Standard (PS) 
Quality and / or Safety Certification Mark Scheme by the Bureau of Product Standards. This mark on a 
product/container is an assurance by the manufacturer/producer that the product conforms with the 
requirements of a Philippine standard. Details of conditions under which a license to use the PS 
Certification Mark may be granted can be obtained from the Bureau of Product Standards, Department 
pPoducVQ!.ai?ty ^^ "^''^^^ ^^^ industry, 361 Sen. Gil J. Puyat Avenue, Makati City. certified 





FORMULATING BODY 

Development of Standard for Selected Ethnic Food Products 

Standard for Thermally Processed Fish Products 

BFAD Philippine National Standards Committee 



I.Ms. OfeliaM. Alba 

2. Ms. Liberty V. Importa 

3. Ms. Almueda C. David 

4. Ms. Charina May T. Tandas 

5. Ms. Maria Theresa C. CerboUes 

6. Ms. Carmencita S. Masangkay 



Ms. Grace Estillore 

Ms. Czarina C. Resurrection 



Chief, LSD/PNS Supervisor 
Nutritionist-Dietitian IV 
Food & Drug Regulation Officer IV 
Food & Drug Regulation Officer III 
Food & Drug Regulation Officer II 
Food & Drug Regulation Officer I 



Funding Agency 



Philippine Council for Industrial and 

Energy Development 

Department of Science and Teclinology 






Technical Working Group 



Academe: 

Prof Teresita Acevedo 



Bernarda Garcia 



Project Leader 
University of the Philippines 
College of Home Economics 
Research Assistant 



Government Agencies: 
Ms. Charina May Tandas 
Ms. Caroline Duller 

Dr. Gilberto Layese 

Ms. Mary Grace Mandigma 



Ms. Nonna Hernandez 
Ms. Myra Magabilin 
Ms. Rose Marie Castillo 
Ms. Myma Almarines 

Testing/Research 
Ms. Teresita Palomares 
Ms. Ma. Dolor Villasei^or 

Professional/Industry Association: 
Dr. Elias Escueta 



Food Industry; 

Ms. Marilou Florendo 



Ms. Clarissa Cavero 



Department of Health 
Bureau of Food & Drugs 

Department of Agriculture 

Bureau of Agriculture Fisheries Product 

Standards 

Department of Trade & hidustry 
Bureau of Product Standards 
Food Products 
Bureau Export Trade & Promotions 



Department of Science and Technology 
Industrial Technology Development Institute 



Philippine Chamber of Food 
Manufacturers Incorporated (PCFMI) 
Philippine Association of Food 
Technologists (PAFT) 

Integrated Food 

Manufacturers Association of the 
Philippines (INFOMAPP) 
Philippine Food Processors and 
Exporters Organization Inc. 
(PHILFOODEX)